Chattawat Shatnataphat *, Boonton Dockthaisong
Corresponding Author: Chattawat Shatnataphat, Master of Arts Program Public and Private Sector Management Program Phanomwan College of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima Province, 30310 Thailand
Received: January 25, 2021 ; Revised: September 04, 2021 ; Accepted: September 06, 2021
The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the problems of public administrators in the current situation of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Thailand; 2) to compare the leadership and relationship with public administrators in the situation and 3) to find appropriate recommendations for public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. This is qualitative research using documented data analysis. The researchers studied and analyzed articles, textbooks, journals, online media and related research. The results of the study found that 1) problems in public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand, problems 3C, namely the failure of this is 1C Communication, Control 2C and Cooperation 3C to solve the COVID-19 problem; 2) Leadership and relationship with public administrators. In the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand, because of leadership and relationships by building relationships in influence, reciprocal between leaders and followers that aim for change by reflecting the shared objectives of leadership in relation to the use of influence occurs between groups of, and 3) Recommendations for Public administrators in the Current Situation of COVID-19 in Thailand on the Role of Public administrators under Public Service-Based Governance of administration democratic.
Keywords: Covid -19, Government Administration, Thailand
Thailand has started to implement public health measures. Under the Communicable Diseases Act B.E. 2558 (2015) to control the spread of COVID-19, such as international travel restrictions and screening measures at all immigration checkpoints This includes quarantine guidelines for travelers entering countries designated as dangerous infectious disease zones1,2. All Thai People with high fever and high risk of contracting COVID-19 should undergo hospital screening and/or self-monitoring. Care and prevention of infection in the hospital for doctors and health personnel Against the spread of COVID-19, Thailand has 766 quarantine facilities across the country. Can accommodate up to 21,302 People Department of Disease Control the Ministry of Public Health is the main agency responsible for various relevant measures. Click here to view related announcements. Proactive patient search measures by identifying the criteria for patients under investigation (PUI) with a focus on suspected and at risk of contracting COVID-19, such as those in contact with People returning from neighboring countries, as reported on May 14, 2020. More than 110,000 patients were eligible for investigation .
Legally, before declaring the state of emergency across the country The Thai government has initiated 14 urgent measures to deal with the COVID-19 outbreak and after declaring a state of emergency. law enforcement Announcements and various ministerial regulations to control the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in Thailand under the Emergency Decree on Government Administration in Emergency Situations BE 2548 during the first month. Central measures is the time to leave the house or during the curfew around the country Restrict group activities such as closing schools and postponing Thai New Year/Songkran holidays. A large place is a high risk because a large number of People will gather. Department stores, stadiums and entertainment venues have been ordered to close temporarily. Lockdown measure is a measure that the governor of each province will announce the closure of areas prohibiting entry and exit at their discretion .
Thailand has a confirmed case of coronavirus (Covid 19), with the first case found on January 13, 2020. The Ministry of Public Health issued an announcement on March 1, 2020 that the coronavirus disease (Covid 19) is a dangerous communicable disease. Under the Communicable Disease Act B.E. 2558, the Prime Minister declared a state of emergency in all areas of Thailand on March 20, 2020 in accordance with the Emergency Decree on Public administrators B.E. April 2020 and it is necessary to extend the period for another month. According to the Covid-19 Situation Report from the Center for Covid-19 Situation Control, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health on January 3, 2021, Thailand has 7,694 confirmed cases, 64 deaths, and patients are being treated in hospitals. 3,293 nurses. In addition, after this research Important information about Covid-19 was released and updated to the public on July 31, 2021. Thailand has 18,912 confirmed cases, 178 deaths, and the situation of cases and deaths continues. Continuously Solving the problems of the government in the past, the weakness is the lack of professionalism, military command Single Command, which in this kind of crisis cannot be used, including not being used by People. Lack of teamwork and almost all levels of communication failed. As a result, the economic sector, businesses and villagers seem stuck in a quagmire, not knowing how to find a way out of the crisis .
Economic Impact and Remedial Measures The spread of COVID-19 has affected the economic situation around the world. including Thailand must be interrupted Even the government has launched an economic package. Which is expected to come out more to mitigate the impact on the economy. But the overall economy of Thailand has been severely damaged. causing severe impacts on major industrial sectors such as tourism, airlines, as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs). One of the economic measures approved for the Ministry of Finance and the Bank of Thailand to spend more than 1.9 trillion baht in Providing loans to care and heal those affected by COVID-19 both economically and socially. A set of measures for care and remedies, including low-interest loans Measures for debt moratorium and extension of special tax payment period for entrepreneurs and SMEs A subsidy of 5,000 baht for 3 months for informal workers, employees, temporary workers or independent and the Social Security Fund money to heal workers who are in the social security system, etc .
Social impact and remedial measures Like many other countries, the COVID-19 outbreak has affected People's incomes and caused many People to lose their jobs. Social distancing and staying at home are two cornerstones of government measures to curb the spread of COVID-19, posing major challenges for the most vulnerable populations, including the workforce. migrants, workers, the elderly, People with disabilities, etc., who had to face difficulties in their lives before the spread of COVID-19. In addition, although the Department of Corrections has taken some measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in prisons and reduce Anxiety of inmates and their relatives But there are still concerns about the congested living conditions in prisons. And the density of inmates in prisons that exceeded their capacity by three times. Therefore. National Health Commission Office the researchers were interested in studying the Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, the issue of which to study is problems of public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. study and compare Leadership and Relationship to public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. and study appropriate recommendations for public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. see collateral for at-risk populations Establishing an efficient welfare delivery mechanism and enhancing social protection programs in every aspect tailored to the needs of a sustainable knowledge-based economy.
METHOD OF RESEARCH
This research study Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, The researchers studied relevant documents and research and presented the government administration on the situation of COVID-19 by applying Cooperation, Communicate and Control to adapt to the situation COVID-19. The key problems that must be applied for effective work efficiency are Leadership and Relationship, and find appropriate recommendations to apply to the public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. Important information is documents, textbooks, media. online related research Relevant agencies that can find information such as the National Library. Government documents that can be viewed and not confidential, etc. Processing period: 10 months from October 2020-July 2021
This research study Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, The researchers conducted the study from the data analysis form from the documents. By collecting data, articles, texts, journals, online media, and elated research in order for The researchers to modify the information to be consistent according to the environment to get a clear answer and diverse and facts .
This research studied public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. The researchers analyzed the data. By bringing the information collected into a systematic, orderly, meaningful information. Categorize the meaning of the data, analyze it, and summarize it. Collect the recorded meaning from primary, secondary, public documents. personal documents all documents research data obtained from research studies from various media For the purposes of the research, therefore, the selection of documents for analysis is a very important step. Because there are many papers on research issues. which details the various criteria, truth, accuracy, credibility Representations and meanings .
From the concepts and research related to Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, the conceptual framework of the research is shown in Figure 1.
Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, The researchers received the study results according to the following objectives:
According to the study of objective 1). To study the problems of public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. The results showed that: Study Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, still have to fully implement the principles of coordination as well as the control must create a host model to be responsible under a combination of work.
Cooperation Management of Thailand's cooperation on the management of COVID-19 Must focus on building international cooperation, including:
Step 1 Global Leadership. This stage is to understand the pathogen as quickly as possible. in order to design a quick and effective management of the epidemic. Therefore, if leaders lack knowledge and understanding lack of unclear information and did not realize the seriousness.
Step 2 Global Task Force. This phase must ensure that all citizens have access to protective equipment. Let Thailand have a plan to manage the epidemic. This can be done by establishing a Global Task Force on how to manage the epidemic. An international law on cooperation in the fight against the epidemic was signed. What is the process for dealing with crises? In order not to panic People, protective equipment and medical equipment are being stocked. Some countries manage it well. But some countries have problems. Develop good practice sharing mechanisms and resource allocation tools. Including sharing tools or technologies and innovations used to allocate resources during the COVID crisis and cooperate in the production and distribution of protective equipment, medical devices, etc.
Stage 3 Global Lockdown. The epidemic phase management of this crisis If micro lockdowns are done alone, the problem may be over in the short term. But in the future, the epidemic will return again. Because micro-levels have to be linked to other areas. The researchers send my regards to the Prime Minister Mar 16, 2020 proposing Thailand to be the mainstay of the negotiations to initiate an agreement with 224 countries and territories through the UN. cause a global lockdown spread across borders Understanding of the disease is still limited. There is no vaccine to prevent disease and there is no cure for disease. Countries have to limit the epidemic as quickly as possible. To reduce the number of critically ill patients entering the public health system and reduce the impact of the epidemic on the economy.
Step 4 Global Research Collaboration. The during this period, the world should develop vaccines quickly. Cost effective use of resources and budget for vaccine development Therefore. The researchers propose to the world to develop world-class vaccine research and development cooperation, for example, to develop a world-class vaccine research and development fund. Create a forum or a channel to exchange knowledge on world-class vaccine development, for example. Vaccines are the answer to stopping the epidemic. But in the past, the development of vaccines is different. not cooperating This has led to a number of development projects for COVID-19 vaccines, of which 10 are being injected around the world and more than 200 are under development. The advantage is that the chance of success is high. But the disadvantage is redundant and inefficient budgeting.
Step 5 Pandemic Global Fund. This is the time when different countries The world has been vaccinated until the world immune group. The researchers suggest that Pandemic Global should establish a fund by building partnerships with all governments. To research and develop vaccines, drugs and tools needed to be sold or sold to poor countries at a cheap price. When the world developed a vaccine There may be a monopoly on the production and concentration of vaccine access. People in wealthy countries have access to vaccines. But poor countries still have little access to vaccines. As such, the epidemic will never end. Because there are still many countries that have not created group immunity.
Step 6 Global Redistribution. This phase should spread the vaccine globally as quickly as possible. The researchers therefore suggest that there should be a global mechanism to equalize vaccines from countries that have a lot. Incentives to inject excess vaccines in countries that do not yet have access to vaccines. Both by asking for donations, borrowing and asking to buy, as well as distributing vaccines that match the species of pathogens. Research on vaccines that are effective against endemic mutations and incentivize and may force People to vaccinate, such as issuing passport vaccines. Forcing all types of providers to be vaccinated, for example, it takes a long time to create a group immunity. Because of the need to vaccinate a large number of People, however, group immunity will eventually emerge in some countries first, such as rich countries, vaccine producing countries. but a country with a small population. The poor will not be vaccinated. People in these countries are still spreading and this could eventually cause another wave of outbreaks.
Step 7 Global Synchronization. This phase is to work together to drive the economy together to restore the global economy. The researchers propose Thailand jointly establish a global economic recovery fund to provide funds and loans to countries. The economic stimulus Governments of all countries work together to inject stimulus money to revive business. The stimulate purchasing power Including trade and investment liberalization to allow investment to buy or raise capital for the business in question. Open the country to receive vaccinated and non-infected tourists including debt moratorium for poor countries to reduce debt and spending on public health budgets in times of crises, for example. Multiple outbreaks and lockdowns have lasting and lasting impacts on the global economy. Making it difficult for people around the world, especially those with low incomes Bangkok Business Online.
Communicate for crisis communication is a difficult and challenging task for leaders. But if it can be done well In addition to employees will receive accurate, clear and practical information. It still has a positive effect on the leaders themselves even when the crisis is over. A good leader's communication must be clear, simple, and frequent of People will become shorter and shorter. Therefore, information that is very complex, intangible and intangible It will make it difficult for People to process and evaluate them into something that they can understand. Therefore, leaders need to remember that when communicating with People in the government organization, they need to keep the message simple, relevant, and informative to the audience. Can be used as a guideline for further practice as well One thing leader tend to neglect is frequent and frequent communication. Leaders should communicate more often than they think. Because communication from leaders will help employees in the government organization reduce anxiety. The uncertainty that exists as well as to ensure that People in the government organization receive and understand what leaders want to communicate. What to watch out for is Although leaders should communicate with employees more often. But it doesn't have to be a communicator in all matters. Matters that leader should be responsible for should be related to the management or important policies of the government organization. As for matters that require People with specialized expertise in other areas such as healthcare. People are more inclined to hear from someone who has expertise in that area. The most important thing is the matter of trust, especially trust in the message that the media leader brings out. In a crisis, everyone expects the message leaders to be reliable and useful to themselves. Therefore, the leader must be honest with the real situation. Do not distort news despite good intentions for employees in the government organization and the factor that affects the highest trust is Leaders must also act on what they communicate.
Control of the COVID-19 outbreak Thailand can control the spread of COVID-19 very well in the first wave from the hard work of medical personnel Public Health Volunteers and receiving public cooperation even at the cost of economic losses. The ability to contain the outbreak has given the country a great time and opportunity to prepare for the next wave of COVID-19 mutations and outbreaks. As well as opening the country to revive the economy. However, the government's wrong decision and policy implementation in the later period has caused Thailand to lose such a good opportunity. And contributing to a new round of outbreaks in a wide area, causing the country to return to a crisis situation again. In early 2020, Thailand controlled the spread of Covid-19. The first wave was quite good. It can control the number of infected People to a low level compared to many countries. Even at that time there was a severe lockdown. This caused an impact on the Thai economy that was already declining due to the severe contraction of the tourism sector. Thailand's GDP growth rate in 2020 was negative 6.1%, or the worst contraction in 22 years. . The success in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak in the first wave is likely due to a number of factors, such as: Having a relatively effective disease control system since before the outbreak. Using an expert as a consultant Dedication of medical personnel Public Health Volunteers and the cooperation of the People from the awareness of the epidemic prevention. As a result, the number of infected People has been reported to zero for several months and Thailand has been recognized as one of the countries with good epidemic control on a global scale.
However, Thailand unfortunately lost the opportunity to prepare for the new wave of outbreaks. Many epidemiologists have commented that this is quite likely to happen. And there is a possibility that the epidemic is more severe from the mutation of the virus. A new wave of outbreaks (wave 2) actually occurred in December 2020, starting with a group of migrant workers at a shrimp market in Samut Sakhon province. This shows the compromise in preventing foreign workers from smuggling across the border. The outbreak continues to spread to workers in various industries. Before it can be controlled by mobilizing epidemiological staff from many areas to help control the outbreak in the epidemic area and prevent the spread of the epidemic from that point. This success has also been achieved through the vigorous cooperation of the parties both government and entrepreneurs. The unpreparedness for a potentially deteriorating situation was also evident when a third wave of outbreaks began in the Bangkok area in late March 2021 from the Thonglor-Ekamai area entertainment cluster. Even at that time, Bangkok Still under the declaration of emergency. This outbreak has spread throughout the Bangkok metropolitan area and other provinces as well.
Despite the warning signs of the second and third wave outbreaks, the government has not adequately prepared for the new outbreak. This can be seen from the delay in using the budget to enhance the 45,000-million-baht health readiness of the decree. The first loan issued since April 2020, until the beginning of June 2021, only 11,623 million baht has been disbursed, or only 26.1 percent, making it unable to upgrade the health system sufficiently and when the outbreak in the 4th wave is widespread. The public health system was unable to support many patients. Especially those with severe symptoms until many hospitals have to request equipment donations from the People. The outbreak in Bangkok, which is the country's most vulnerable area, also reflects a lack of structure and systems to deal with the pandemic. Importantly, there are still problems that make it much less co-operation to control the outbreak than in Samut Sakhon. The especially the conflict between the Ministry of Public Health and Bangkok, which is one of the reasons that Bangkok became the epicenter of the current pandemic. In addition to the emergence of new virus strains with higher transmission rates.
A new wave of coronavirus outbreaks across the region is caused by the mutation and spread of a delta strain that is thought to be two to four times as high as the original Wuhan strain. Another concern of the delta species is Many vaccines are less effective in preventing infection compared to the original strain. Even a new wave of virus mutation outbreaks is out of control. And the cumulative infection rate and cumulative mortality from COVID-19 in Thailand are still lower than in neighbouring countries. But when compared to the capacity of the country's health system and the opportunities that existed. Thailand should be able to reduce the number of infections and deaths much less than they are. If the government has prepared seriously respond to problems in an integrated proactive manner listen to opinions before making decisions on the basis of information and theoretical and learn from past experiences and mistakes looking back. There are several cases suggesting that the government is likely to make the wrong decision, for example. Thailand has the opportunity to limit the spread of the disease early in the third round of outbreak. But the government decided to have a long holiday during Songkran, without measures to support the epidemic causing widespread outbreaks to various provinces from the end of April to the present when the outbreak spreads widely the government is still unable to coordinate collaboration between different agencies. in unity especially the problem of working inconsistencies between the Ministry of Public Health and Bangkok. as already mentioned, this makes it possible to control the outbreak in communities and worker camps in Bangkok. is delayed. That is more problematic than that. Management in a confusing crisis situation the government has announced back and forth measures. This reflects the negligent consideration before the announcement. The most obvious example is the announcement of a lockdown for Bangkok in the middle of the night on June 26, 2021, just one day after the announcement that there will be no lockdown on June 25, and that the lockdown will come into effect from June 28, which is a very close time. and cause unnecessary damage to entrepreneurs and People who plan their business and activities. Understanding that there will be no lockdown This shift in policy shows that the government is just becoming aware of the severity of the new outbreak that the number of infections is likely to exceed the capacity of the country's public health system. However, after the lockdown announcement However, it does not appear that the government has effective support and remedial plans, especially the detention of construction workers in shelters without any remedy. Which caused many workers to return to their homeland which increases the risk of widespread outbreaks Although this situation is similar to announcing restaurants and service establishments. abruptly closed during the first wave of the outbreak which caused many workers to return to their homeland and cause the outbreak to spread. This mistake once again shows that the government has not learned from the past epidemic control lessons that Remedial measures must come out with a lockdown. Therefore, it will be able to motivate People to cooperate.
According to the study of objective 2) To study and compare Leadership and Relationship to public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. The results showed that:
Leadership and Epidemic Management. Show us the inflexibility of legal mechanisms. Therefore, it is important for government agencies and government organizations to understand the role of leadership. that must be understood in order of priorities in society. Give People the opportunity to participate and unite all parties together. The crisis has given leaders in the modern world the opportunity to review those good leaders must have the qualities to be ready to cope with change. Be patient and able to adapt to changing situations which good leadership especially in this epidemic crisis. Leaders must take into account the rule of law that is an important element to restore society back to normal. Because if there is no rule of law a lot of People will be neglected. Basic rights will be ignored, and if the rule of law is used in the wrong way It will reduce trust in social institutions. Six characteristics of future leaders include: 1) Empowering Workforce Leaders from now on. Must practice skills in using People. Must know how to teach subordinates to dare to think and make decisions by themselves. The era of Control & Command is over, 2) Managing capital & cost Leaders must have basic knowledge of accounting and finance. Must have the ability to manage costs, investments and expenses. Including the work of Logistic and Supply Chain, 3) Managing Portfolio Leaders must be good at managing a variety of businesses. Must have knowledge in many areas The strategy must be chosen appropriately. Know when to take risks When should I stay still? and when to back off, 4) Engaging Customers & Stakeholders Leaders must be able to create engagement to engage customers and all relevant stakeholders. Must understand the changes in consumer behavior Must know how to create building connections and use those relationships to benefit. Managing Relationship, 5) Managing Change & Agility Leaders must be able to manage teams and government organizations to be agile. Ready for rapid changes and has high adaptability; and 6) Power Skills, last but not least. Leaders must possess special skills that enhance their work, such as knowledge in Technology & Digital Literacy, the ability to create Interpersonal Skills, Creativity and the ability to create innovation, etc.
Relationship is what government organization leaders should have during a crisis as follows: 1) Use your heart and brain to lead the government organization in times of crisis. In times of crisis, corporate leaders should be emotionally intelligent and show compassion for both employees and customers. because during this time People want nothing more than safety and good health. So, the most important thing is Caring for employees and customers However, sustaining the company's earnings is another equally important thing. during the period of high uncertainty Government organizational leaders should combine decision-making powers for clarity, speed, and ability to make timely decisions. In addition, every decision and action should always be based on the main goals of the government organization. 2) Enable the government organization to operate continuously. During this time, there were always many things that were urgent. But corporate leaders should focus on what matters most. by clearly defining the priorities of things. It was found that corporate leaders coped by setting up a special command center. Applying digital technology and communicate with customers regularly. 3) Prioritize speed, not perfection. Because there are emergency situations happening all the time. Leaders must make bold and timely decisions. as well as have contingency plans to deal with uncertain situations. More importantly, having a clear goal is a factor that helps the government organization's leaders to make decisions faster. despite the lack of complete information However, similar information may be used instead. and when returning to normal Data quality should be reviewed and developed to be used in future crises that may arise again. 4) Build trust among all parties involved. Trust during this time of crisis is extremely important. Trust is only achieved when three factors are combined: transparency or direct communication. The next factor is the good relationship with the stakeholders, whether it be customers, partners and employees. The last factor is that the stakeholders believe that the company will deliver as promised. Trust is a key factor that drives related parties to work together to overcome obstacles and 5) look for opportunities to prepare for the upcoming New Normal. Government organizational leaders should find a balance between short-term strategies and long-term strategies. or choosing to cut some costs to survive a shrinking economy and to invest for future growth. due to covid-19 This happened to create structural changes. Many things are changing rapidly, for example, as the environment pressures government organizations to adopt technology. Therefore, if the government organization's leaders are focused on implementing short term strategy until neglecting long-term strategies like investing more in technology or doing Digital Transformation May not be able to fully grow in the next period. Government organizational leaders with the above attributes will inspire government organizations to move through crises. It also helps to elevate the brand of the government organization to a better position. and can be prepared to deal with what is going to happen effectively Moreover, such crises lead to new learning. government organization change Creating value for stakeholders and society as well as building trust among those involved.
According to the study of objective 3) To find appropriate recommendations for public administrators in the current situation of COVID-19 in Thailand. The results showed that:
Success Administration The Governments have to distinguish between questions and concerns that are already answered. And any questions/questions remain unanswered, meaning some policies are on the right track. And there is no need for additional information, such as the mask campaign. Hygiene campaign and space management to have a distance. While some policies need to be opened to new information. and ready to be adjusted, such as the issue of economic damage from the lockdown policy in the past or policy on vaccines because new information comes every day argue that what has already been decided is the best. It's not a matter of benefiting anything. Plus, you may be asked if it's beneficial to anyone or not. Even if you don't have to touch unchanged Most importantly, admitting that some things that the government doesn't know it not disgusting. You don't have to show that you are smarter and more patriotic than everyone else. For example, when covid will end? When the governments unable to answer is because there is no future information which is a matter of uncertainty. What must be followed is an experiment. or explain that it is learning by doing and understand the different conditions of each case by not claiming that other countries are more devastated than us. One of the information found around the world is How does the lockdown case affecting in the COVID situation? That means both in terms of reducing the epidemic and in terms of the mouth of the People. There is no definite answer to this matter because it depends on many conditions, such as in the case of Wuhan. The lockdown has reduced the number of infections by more than 67%, but in the case of other countries, it was found that In addition to the lack of income There is also a lack of food resources. This means that lockdown conditions must include policies or measures, such as food delivery, income support, etc., which are subject to trial and evaluation.
The decisions and management of uncertain situations must be communicated to the People so that they can have and understand their options. especially important messages There are many risks associated with the coronavirus outbreak. and if People act according to certain principles, It will reduce the risk to both him and others. The government may not have complete information and evidence on some matters. And sometimes it is necessary to adjust the situation. Therefore, People must cooperate and listen to information from the state. The important thing is transparency in the work of the government itself. And I would like to add that it is also a matter of the government's attitude towards the People. That is, if you let the security agencies with a history of not listening to the voices of the People. and public health agencies who believe they are the ones who are ordering People to follow one child. Let's work together to manage the situation. The public feeling that they are not understood by the state is very likely. And the bully will not believe that what the state says is true. Finally, the use of power and communication must be accepted by the People (The messenger is as important as the message). As is the case in the world and cities also attaches importance to mobilizing volunteers to participate in the management of the situation It is not viewed as a matter of overlapping the powers of government officials who have been appointed over and over again. or communicating with community/local leaders to cooperate with an understanding of the situation rather than a matter of order.
New Public Services for a new approach to public services to address COVID-19, prioritizing Citizen First Public Interest, Democratic Accountability. Negotiating conclusions and commitments to citizens and communities in order to truly distribute that public benefit to society Viewing the People as just those waiting to receive services from the state Focus on internal management rather than external Efficiency, efficiency and economy are also considered as core values in management. Organizing a formal organization that emphasizes the chain of command of public interest is determined by the political department and the regular civil service. Or already set in various policies and laws, the responsibility can be a matter of experts and senior management. The decision-making processes are therefore monopolized among politicians and civil servants. Citizens or the public can therefore participate in a limited level. Operations are in accordance with rules and regulations, resulting in inefficient and delayed work. Government officials lack motivation to work and are blocked. in creativity The new public services to tackle COVID-19 have very similar fundamentals and values, including emphasis on civic engagement. democracy The role of public administrators in social change, management values not only about efficiency, effectiveness, and economy. but also attaches importance to equality and fairness responsibility management ethics This similarity leads to the view that the two concepts belong to the same group as a normative concept that rejects logical idealism. (anti-logical positivism) the same The researchers defined the Cooperation Cycle model at Figure 2.
Citizens are citizens who want public interest or long-term interests rather than personal interests or short-term interests in public service. Public administrators is only responsible for jointly employed entrepreneurs or owners of inefficient and productive businesses. The image is not more important than the equality, fairness and accountability of the government, considering that the value of fairness It is ethics and responsibility that are the goals of public service. Public service is not just the delivery of goods or services to the citizens but the democratization of the citizens. The key issue is legitimacy, the ability to take responsibility. Verifiable Leadership and ethics in management which in many cases has deviated from the way of democracy, especially in terms of being beyond the boundaries of public law. Policy Corruption and Conflicts of Public Interest.
Research Study the Government Administration in The Present of Covid-19 in Thailand, The researchers have studied related research. To see the consistency of other researches as follows
The number of infected People is increasing day by day. In Thailand, thousands of People are still infected every day. Including the start of a worrying increase in the number of deaths, it's time for the public-private sector to open up to the national crisis together. When the private sector comes together to push for offers and assistance. The public sector must therefore be open to making the mobility of the private sector more flexible. Because if let this kind of covid crisis continue Thailand may not survive. The state should open up and allow the private sector to participate in vaccine management with the expertise and strength of each company that exists. including supporting technology and locations to make vaccinations faster than centralized governments alone, So when the private sector offers to help Therefore, the government must open up to find solutions together. Reduce redundant steps in the bureaucracy to facilitate the mobility of the private sector. The state has to squeeze economic stimulus measures. Helping People, especially small entrepreneurs, with urgent measures to create long-term sustainability. It's not just a short-term stimulus. Because otherwise, Thailand's vaccines are already slower than other countries. Enough to open their eyes and open their mouths, the government, including small entrepreneurs, will probably die first. Countries that can't keep up with the world economy.
Cooperation between the state and the private sector, important. Both sides must cooperate sincerely. Open to listen to opinions and discuss creative solutions to the crisis. Government as regulators need to relax Reduce the traditional bureaucracy because it cannot be used in such a crisis situation. And it doesn't work in the modern world. By easing the complex and redundant system, the rapid movement of the converged private sector, the number of infected People is increasing day by day. In Thailand, thousands of People are still infected every day. Including the start of a worrisome increase in the number of deaths, it's time for public-private sectors to open their minds through the national crisis together. When the private sector comes together to push for offers and assistance. Therefore, the public sector must be open to making the mobility of the private sector more flexible. because if let this kind of covid crisis continue Thailand may not survive.
The state should open up and allow the private sector to participate in vaccine management with the expertise and strength of each company that exists. including supporting technology and locations to make vaccinations faster than centralized governments alone, So when the private sector offers to help. Therefore, the government must open up to find solutions together. Reduce redundant steps in the bureaucracy to facilitate the mobility of the private sector. The state has to squeeze economic stimulus measures. Helping People, especially small entrepreneurs, with urgent measures to create long-term sustainability. It's not just a short-term stimulus. Because otherwise, Thailand's vaccines are already slower than other countries. Enough to open their eyes and open their mouths, the government, including small entrepreneurs, will probably die first. Countries that can't keep up with the world economy. Cooperation between the state and the private sector is therefore important. Both sides must cooperate sincerely. Open to listen to opinions and discuss creative solutions to the crisis. Government as regulators need to relax. Reduce the traditional bureaucracy because it cannot be used in such a crisis situation. And it doesn't work in the modern world. The easing of complex and redundant systems would allow the rapid movement of the private sector to congregate. Lack of effective communication Refusing to provide truth information or providing information in different directions. Speak some truth. The opposite of what needs to be done in a crisis that should provide the facts surrounding the situation in a timely manner bring a variety of problems. Refusing to disclose information honestly. Providing information in different directions. The opposite of what should be done in a crisis by providing all-round facts with speed make. People awake and aware of the crisis that arises at the same time, relevant government agencies will have clear guidelines that do not confuse.
The Consistent with the research of Angelo Romano, et al. . Cooperation and Trust Across Societies During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The results showed that Cross-societal differences in cooperation and trust among strangers in the provision of public goods may be key to understanding how societies are managing the COVID-19 pandemic. We report a survey conducted across 41 societies between March and May 2020 (N = 34,526), and test pre-registered hypotheses about how cross-societal differences in cooperation and trust relate to prosocial COVID-19 responses (e.g., social distancing), stringency of policies, and support for behavioral regulations (e.g., mandatory quarantine). We further tested whether cross-societal variation in institutions and ecologies theorized to impact cooperation were associated with prosocial COVID-19 responses, including institutional quality, religiosity, and historical prevalence of pathogens. We found substantial variation across societies in prosocial COVID-19 responses, stringency of policies, and support for behavioral regulations. However, we found no consistent evidence to support the idea that cross-societal variation in cooperation and trust among strangers is associated with these outcomes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results were replicated with another independent cross-cultural COVID-19 dataset (N = 112,136), and in both snowball and representative samples. We discuss implications of our results, including challenging the assumption that managing the COVID-19 pandemic across societies is best modeled as a public goods dilemma.
Conclusion, control, communication and cooperation. The government therefore needs to have Innovative to proactively identify infected People to cut the chances of a new round of Covid-19 outbreak. Experience working in proactive locating of infected rural doctors in many provinces such as Songkhla, Nan and provinces. Samut Sakhon point out that Effective and effective solutions It is the mobilization of medical personnel from provinces or districts with few or no COVID-19 cases. Let's help work on proactive locating of infected People in Bangkok. or a city with a pandemic By dividing these personnel into at least 500 groups to investigate the infection and the history of close contact. Then disperse to follow up with those who have a close history with the infected for examination, quarantine and vaccination. In addition, the state needs to adjust the target groups and investigation areas in a timely manner when the epidemic situation changes. If the government can speed up the proposed action In addition to being able to reduce the number of infected People within one to two months. It will also effectively prevent new outbreaks. Therefore, the government must have active case finding innovations by accelerating the establishment of at least 500 additional surveillance and investigation teams for community X-rays and to control the spread of infection with the principles of disease investigation, infection testing and Quarantine (TTI or Trace, Test, Isolation) and have a system to persuade those with symptoms or self-doubt to come for a quick and easy examination. Add checkpoints in various slum communities. and risk areas by allowing the public to receive information about those service points
The novel coronavirus COVID-19 does not only challenge the health systems of each country. But it also proves the role and ability of the country's leaders to deal with crises. As the virus had threatens public health And lockdowns are affecting the nation and global economy. Each country's leaders have different approaches to dealing with emerging problems. Including communication to build understanding and confidence among the People, which reflects the identity of the leader through the attitude of communication. Leaders of each country deal with the epidemic of COVID-19, with General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Prime Minister of Thailand, announced the Emergency Decree to control the situation of COVID-19. To reduce the spread of disease It is effective from March 26 to April 30, 2020, with an emphasis on asking for cooperation in opening and closing various places with close crowds, and the risk infecting such as shopping malls, restaurants and services. At the same time, a curfew has been announced to prohibit People from leaving their homes between 22:00 – 04:00, effective from April 3. Sept. 2020, unless there is a necessity. At the same time, General Prayut also announced measures to help heal People who are economically affected by Covid-19. The whole project, Thai People don't leave each other. including helping the business and agricultural sectors Although the Thai government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The outbreak will receive international acclaim. But many of the measures have faced criticism from the public, such as the closure of services that have led to income and job losses. or registering for compensation through the website "We don't leave each other" that in the end is unable to pay comprehensive compensation to the People, etc.
Consistent with the research of Bruce B. Forster, MSc, MD, et al. . Crisis Leadership During and Following COVID-19. The results showed that. Transparency is such an important principle in crisis management. Leaders need to provide clarity on what they know and what they don’t. Regular, accurate communication is essential during such a crisis and mitigates the risk of rumours and misinformation being spread, much like the chatter in the cabin of an airliner as it sits on the tarmac for many minutes with no explanation. With COVID-19, the understanding of who has to screen (and how) before what procedures changes regularly and is a source of anxiety which clear evidence-based updates can reduce. Leaders are constantly scrutinized for tone, words chosen, and body language, so be mindful, and also be realistic, but optimistic whenever possible. An engaged leader who walks the walk with their unit engenders respect,4 whether sharing equally the income reduction during the crisis or volunteering for patient screening at hospital entrances. The demonstration of empathy is critical in crises in which human tragedy is frequent. And the leader should model the importance of self-care, ensuring they are match-fit for the challenges by ensuring adequate sleep, good nutrition, and adequate exercise. Finally, the recovery phase after a crisis most certainly demands strong leadership. Balancing the safety of patients and health care workers with the value-add that medical imaging and intervention provides in diagnosis and treatment planning requires an iterative process with feedback loops that instruct next steps. And with a pandemic such as COVID-19, it is possible that all of the above principles, with lessons learned, may be applied again in case of recurrent outbreaks. A great leader helps individuals believe in themselves and contribute to an achievement that they thought not possible if acting alone. A landscape crisis such as the SARS CoV-2 pandemic is a global crisis such as we have never seen. But with principles of great leadership in mind, the radiology community can adjust the sails and help steer the medical community back to the safe haven of quality, timely, and evidence-based care and also.
Recognize that Accountability Is Not Simple Recognize that accountability is not easy. Because liability for the COVID-19 outbreak to society alone is not enough. But it has to expand broadly to the readiness of liability for the COVID-19 outbreak in accordance with the law, community values. political norms professional standards and the interests of citizens. It can be said that when the four elements of culture are formed: attitudes, values, beliefs and inventions, should be cultivated to promote, develop, forward or modify, as appropriate, to be used at any moment. Seek the Public Interest Focusing on creating mutually desirable benefits. Whenever any matter is desired by the demands of the citizens arising out of discussion, debate, discussion or joint determination. The government must act quickly to meet the demands of that citizen. Serve Citizens, Not Customers. Looking at long-term collective interests rather than short-term personal interests and encouraging citizens to participate. If is looking at the elements of culture in terms of attitudes, values, beliefs and inventions. It can be said that this first principle is the first step in trying to create a culture, that is, the first is to create a positive attitude towards citizens. By persuasion and support to get involved and responding with the desired benefits in the long run. The second is the creation of shared values. By going through a process of participation because governments have to listen to the voices of citizens, thirdly, faith-building may be successful. If is the engagement process is successful and the government itself accepts the demands of citizens. This may show that the parties have already built trust with each other. and lastly, invention obtained from action, or behaviour in any form One model is successful through a participatory process that can build beliefs. The create values and that good attitude, then the invention that might be officially born, or not official is the collective interest group itself.
The important role of civil servants is to provide services or service delivery, at present, service alone is not enough. Because of the need for negotiation, discussion, consultation, government officials should train themselves to increase their role of facilitating to mediate and compromise help fix including developing leadership and follower skills conflict management negotiation compromise and dispute resolution, etc., which is to create good values or new values to occur in the work itself. The think Strategically, Act Democratically for this condition it can be said that it is the process leading to the creation of the invention or establishing mutual agreements that are consistent in the same direction which things that may be received, such as an action policy or management principles or the occurrence of an organization, organization, etc. Value Citizenship over Entrepreneurship Value citizenship over entrepreneurship. In this regard, the key conclusion is that the public interest is the highest value. Public interest must bring benefits to society. and the public interest must be carried out by selfless bureaucrats and citizens. Not a businessman or entrepreneur who only aims for profit. which, if considering the elements of culture, it can be said that it is the process of formation of attitudes, values, beliefs and inventions. Including improvements, corrections, strengthening and forwarding of good things to the next in this view, the public interest That means making the largest number of People benefit. or supreme happiness. Value People, Not Just Productivity Not just for productivity the operation of government organizations can be successful because of the cooperation of many People. many organizations together Therefore, the government has to focus on creating People, developing People, enhancing motivation to work for government officials. More than just looking at the productivity of the work. This means creating a new culture of government organizations itself. to create shared values Joint benefit to the organization.
Consistent with the research of Phra Maha Arun Panyaruno et al. . Government Management in the Coronavirus Disease Crisis 2019. The results showed that. Has the status enacted as a law for the state to perform duties as provided in the constitution? It is necessary for the maximum efficiency and effectiveness of society. This will make the People's right to benefit from the state truly arise. Government administration is considered an important part of the treatment of suffering and happiness for members of society and during the coronavirus disease 2019 situation, it is a very important part in managing the country as well as driving the country at the same time, and the government is considered a key player in performing duties under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E. 2560 (2017), which has measures to regulate policies, and government agencies that are important tools in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 measures of both the public and private sectors Even various agencies are a part that helps the government to perform the duties of the state under the Constitution to the fullest. The purpose of this article is to explain how it works. management and dealing with the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 to the best of both the government, the private sector, and all medical personnel. Which is an important force in preventing and driving the country through this epidemic crisis as well this was discussed in an overview of relevant countermeasures by government agencies that have studied and assessed the impact on the quality of life, environment and health of People or communities, and held a hearing of stakeholders' opinions, People and communities. related and at present, Thailand is able to cope with the epidemic very well at the top of the world .
Therefore, the role of the government in organizing and dealing with the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 through measures and government agencies This will refer only to countermeasures related to government agencies. It was found that the countermeasures of the government given to relevant agencies to implement. It is the function of the state under the constitution. Which fully meets the needs of the People and helps those affected by the coronavirus disease 2019. But there are still some areas that still need a lot of driving. especially economic measures. There is still controversy. This is evident in many projects the government is trying to solve. But it still did not achieve the objectives of the state's duty in the treatment of suffering. Maintaining happiness for People in times of crisis However, with all of the above the role of the government in the management of the 2019 coronavirus disease, although it is a constitutional duty of the state. But the government has been heavily criticized for its handling of the crisis on many fronts. But the government has done its best in every way, cooperating with medical personnel such as doctors, nurses and staff who are willing to help patients or infected with this virus fully, and can cope with the epidemic so well that the lockdown can be released periodically. Until now, the number of infected People in the country is 0, leaving only those who have returned from abroad .
SUMMARY / SUGGESTIONS
The COVID-19 crisis has made us see the potential of the Thai public health system. That they are ready with the proactive defense and epidemic control In urban areas we have strong medical resources. While remote areas have strengths in their defensive proactive responses. As for the local community, there is a strong basic public health cost system, i.e., there are 1 million village health volunteers (VHVs), nearly 10,000 sub-district health hospitals, and 700-800 hospitals. ready to serve as a base to support patients The positive impact here If the lessons are really taken apart. This will enable investments to expand the potential of the primary health care system, and a large community health system Previously, our resources were invested in large hospitals in Bangkok, and mainly in major cities. But the COVID-19 crisis shows that there are health costs in the community. If there is an additional investment policy, it will be very beneficial to the Thai public health system in the future, allowing us to see People adapt from panic becomes awakening. There was a great learning experience for the People. to cope with the virus outbreak taking care of yourself social distancing Here, if there is continuity, it can strengthen the People. Volunteer networking Upgrading to have measures to take care of themselves in the future, resulting in the People's constitution in the fight against COVID-19, in which People have issued their own measures to deal with the epidemic. Which includes both wheeling according to the measures of the state and making their own measures in the community to prevent groups at risk of infection, such as the elderly, young children chronic disease patients along with social care measures setting up a factory Caring for food security. These constitutions can be upgraded to the constitution to deal with disasters and prevent other epidemics. It is an important development of the community, make society more aware of decentralization to the governor local government organization. There are various measures which the state issued under the Emergency Decree and the Communicable Disease Act Ministry of Health Implemented faster. Because People can be mobilized. Which centralized the central government alone can't fix problems in a timely manner like this. This is a very noticeable change. Therefore, these situations have a positive impact that has occurred since the People's awakening began to formulate its own measures. as well as society saw the importance of decentralization may lead to national reforms in the future The National Health Commission's secretary-general gave hopeful comments.
Public administrators or government officials therefore have to adjust their personality and adapt themselves to be socially responsible persons with leadership is a person who is ready to facilitate is the one who helps. Be a conflict manager and negotiator. be a compromise and settle disputes Rather than performing duties that only result in efficiency. If you look at it from this angle, what will help support the success of solving the COVID-19 problem is to push for participative democracy. It is not representative democracy to occur with the Thai government administration system. However, studying the elements of culture, such as attitudes, values, beliefs and inventions, and then adapting them, creating, pushing and applying them to adapted to the new approach of public service (NPS) in accordance with the Thai public administrator’s system. It is something that needs to be developed and studied. They are always in the same period of time that is constantly changing as well due to many factors that hinder such as the strength of the patronage system. Top class grants for public policy making which these are One form of invention But if an element of culture can be created, then The achievement that the organization will receive is rebirth of the organization using culture to help mold, refine and adjust the behavior of civil servants or the use of culture as a driving force for such organizations.
Setting up measures to manage the Covid-19 outbreak requires careful thinking. Minimize losses and find a way to achieve maximum results. The Outbreak Management the impact must be taken into account, including the medical and public health impacts. economic and social (Medical, Economic and Sociology) social outcomes. It is quite possible affect lifestyle Restrictions on certain rights and freedoms Including, problems of living from the economy, unemployment, lack of income, making life more difficult. It affects family, society, traditions and practices.
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